Where is the fist of the hottest motor going

2022-08-02
  • Detail

Where are the "fists" of motors?

when talking about small and medium-sized motors, we often associate them with heavy cast iron shells, simple stator and rotor combinations, many workers' skilled winding work, cabbage like sales prices and large high-energy power consumers

in the new year, why not try to spread your thinking and think about the development possibilities of small and medium-sized motors in the future? Will low energy efficiency motors be completely withdrawn from the market this year? Will traditional motor materials be completely replaced by new materials this year? Whether the motor market pattern has been broken

we might as well start to find various possibilities for the development of small and medium-sized motors

low energy efficiency motors may completely withdraw from the executive meeting of the State Council held on January 30, 2013, which studied and deployed the work of controlling the total energy consumption. Industry insiders believe that the total energy consumption control is essentially to promote the transformation of development mode and the adjustment of economic structure through energy constraints. At present, 70% of the total energy consumption is consumed by industry, so industrial transformation and upgrading and vigorously promoting industrial energy conservation are the key

according to the data, the annual power consumption of motors in China has exceeded 2trillion kwh, accounting for about 60% of the national power consumption and 80% of the industrial power consumption. The promotion of high-efficiency motors is particularly important; On the other hand, China's motor export has broad business opportunities. Now, there are fewer and fewer enterprises engaged in traditional motor production in developed countries such as Europe and the United States. Chinese motor enterprises may become their importers. However, bulky and large motors are not popular in developed countries such as Europe and the United States. Foreign motors are developing towards portability and simplicity, and China's export of large and efficient motors has no advantage. China's motor enterprises should increase the international competitiveness of motor manufacturing

although China has become a large motor manufacturing country and has mastered the production technology of high-efficiency and ultra-high-efficiency energy-saving motors, the overall competitiveness of the industry is still weak. The large amount of motor and the low level of energy efficiency restrict the healthy development of China's national economy

with the 12th Five Year Plan proposing to vigorously develop seven strategic emerging industries, the motor industry, as a leading industry in energy conservation and environmental protection, new energy, new energy vehicles and high-end equipment manufacturing, is bound to be strongly supported by national policies. The promotion of high-efficiency motors representing energy conservation and environmental protection has been continuously strengthened

at the same time, China has been actively studying and issuing incentive policies to promote efficient motors. In order to promote the promotion of high-efficiency motors, the state has implemented financial subsidies for high-efficiency motors since june2010; In order to achieve the goal of promoting 31.77 million KW high-efficiency motors in 2011, the subsidy standard was raised in March of that year; In 2012, the Ministry of industry and information technology issued the 12th Five Year Plan for energy conservation in industrial systems. In this plan, the growth target of IE2 is set that in 2015, the motors of the whole IE2 will reach more than 80% of the whole motor market. However, the implementation of GB energy efficiency limits and energy efficiency grades for small and medium-sized three-phase asynchronous motors has pushed the promotion of high-efficiency motors to a new starting point, followed by the withdrawal of low-efficiency motors

at the same time, the relevant departments also released several batches of the elimination catalogue of high energy consumption backward mechanical and electrical equipment (products) to promote the progress of eliminating backward mechanical and electrical equipment

it is not difficult to see that the state is using a combination of subsidies and coercion to continuously improve the motor energy efficiency standards and encourage the development of the high-efficiency and energy-saving motor market

based on the development trend and market demand of the motor industry at home and abroad, large motors should take a systematic energy-saving route, that is, the whole motor must be made easy; The important thing in the world is to put the experimental machine in place for system optimization and transformation, such as adding frequency converters, which can make the energy-saving effect very obvious; Small motors are firmly pursuing the route of high-efficiency motors, because it is easy to improve the efficiency of small capacity motors by appropriately increasing the amount of materials. China's motor enterprises should not ignore the development of small and medium-sized motors just for the sake of state subsidies

therefore, some experts suggest that in addition to doing a good job of subsidies, a new mechanism for the promotion of efficient motors should be established. Both from the production side and from the demand side, promote the development of high-efficiency motors by various means

low energy efficiency motors may soon disappear from the small and medium-sized motor market through good forms of subsidies and strict exit mechanisms, effective third-party testing, and expansion of overseas markets

electric vehicle motor may become the hot spot pursued by enterprises

electric vehicle is undoubtedly one of the most popular products at present. The world's major well-known automobile manufacturers are struggling to compete for this new thing. Of course, domestic enterprises are not willing to fall behind. In the process of electric vehicle assembly, the quality of the motor directly determines the performance of the whole vehicle. According to experts, The gap between the development of China's electric vehicle industry and that of foreign countries is widening, especially in the motor industry

due to the development of new energy vehicles, the motor market for pure electric vehicles has become the key sales direction. Although many domestic enterprises claim to have the scientific research strength of the whole industry chain, the really good motor must require long-term technical accumulation before trial production, testing and finally mass production

insiders pointed out that there are few complete vehicle enterprises that have the real strength to make new energy motors in China, especially in the field of passenger cars. Under the background that enterprises vigorously advocate having core autonomy, everyone is reluctant to show that the motor link, as one of the core components of new energy vehicles, is still controlled by others

there are many enterprises that claim to be new energy motors in China, but there are few enterprises that specialize in new energy motors. Many enterprises have changed from traditional mechanical, marine and other traditional industrial motor fields to new energy driven motor fields, with little R & D and production experience

although traditional industrial motors and new energy automobile motors are similar in principle, there are still differences in actual manufacturing. At present, the motors used in new energy vehicles are divided into asynchronous motors and permanent magnet motors. The former is mainly used in commercial vehicles such as public transport and passenger transport, while the latter is mainly used in passenger vehicles

some insiders said that because the rotor of asynchronous motor has no winding, no brush, no magnetic induction, low power conversion efficiency, simple structure and relatively low price, it is mainly used in large buses; The rotor of permanent magnet motor has windings and brushes to supply power to the rotor, which has high power conversion efficiency, complex structure and expensive price. It is mainly used in the environment with strict requirements on speed. For example, Anhui Lishi Power Supply Technology Co., Ltd. of pure electric passenger car has been approved by Anhui Industrial Design Center; Four new invention patents were added

there are 35 batches of new energy vehicles in the catalogue of recommended models for energy saving and new energy vehicle demonstration, promotion and application project of the Ministry of industry and information technology, totaling 484 models. The more models issued by the Ministry of industry and information technology, the larger the motor market, which is a huge cake for motor enterprises. In the face of an attractive market within reach, are motor manufacturers ready

in this process, for the sake of many motor supporting enterprises, they hurried to launch a simple technical improvement on the traditional industrial motor, when the new energy automobile motor is provided to the vehicle factory

however, in foreign countries, there are many strict technical indicators for the production of new energy vehicle motors. When new energy vehicles, especially pure electric vehicles, run on different road conditions such as uphill, downhill, flat and bumpy roads, the motor output power is different. Many domestic motor manufacturers only slightly improve the production experience of traditional industrial motors, without considering the service environment of new energy vehicle motors, which will greatly shorten the service life and easily cause local overheating, line short circuit and other dangerous situations

since we all realize that there will be a broad market for electric vehicle motors in the future, why not strictly control the R & D, testing and production of motors, carry out basic research as soon as possible, calm down and start from scratch, truly form an electric vehicle motor industry chain, and face the opportunities available with a sound attitude

rare earth materials may be replaced

on the periodic table of elements, dysprosium (Dy) and neodymium (nd) are indeed unknown elements, both of which are rare metal elements from rare earth mines. As its name implies, dysprosium and neodymium mines are very rare

since the emergence of rare earth permanent magnet motor in the early 1970s, due to the high magnetic energy product and high coercivity (especially the high intrinsic coercivity) of rare earth permanent magnet, the rare earth permanent magnet motor has a series of advantages, such as small volume, light weight, high efficiency and good characteristics. It has become an important development direction of the new energy automotive motor industry and is favored by all countries

China is the main producer of rare earth in the world, and its output accounts for about 95% of the world supply. In other countries, China monopolizes the rare earth market. Therefore, inventing a motor that does not need dysprosium and neodymium will have a great profit

switched reluctance motor just does not rely on rare earth resources. The structural design of the motor is innovative. It is composed of semiconductor chips with strong performance and fast conversion. The operation of the electric control system for controlling the reluctance motor is more precise, and the switched reluctance motor has gained a new life

it is understood that the main difference between switched reluctance motor and ordinary motor is whether to use permanent magnet. For ordinary DC motor, it consists of two parts: moving rotor and fixed stator. The stator is usually made into a shell, and permanent magnetic steel is installed in the stator. The rotor runs in the motor shell, and the copper wire winding is wound on it as an electromagnet. The current in the coil reverses periodically, so the motor runs. The commutation of coil current leads to the polarity conversion of electromagnet, and the rotor rotates under the action of thrust and tension between permanent magnetic field and rotating electromagnetic field

ordinary motors realize current commutation through a rotating switch, i.e. a commutator: the conducting strip on the commutator contacts the carbon brush. When the rotor rotates, the conducting strip runs under the carbon brush. The coil winding is connected to the brush through the conducting strip. It is not only an indispensable basic production link for a large number of industrial and agricultural products, but also energized. Although the modern motor uses electronic control system to replace the commutator, its basic operating principle is the same as that of the commutator

the commutation principle of switched reluctance motor is the same as that of traditional motor, but it does not need permanent magnet or rare earth and other similar materials except that there is no brush. This is because the switched reluctance motor adopts the principle of minimum reluctance in its working principle

magnetoresistance and resistance are similar. Just as the current will flow along the path of the smallest resistance, the magnetic flux (i.e. the magnetic line of force) will also choose the magnetic circuit of the smallest reluctance. Iron is just a cheap and good low magnetoresistance material

for example, when the electric vehicle is running at a high speed, the switched reluctance motor does not lose torque as fast as the permanent magnet motor, which is beneficial to the overtaking acceleration process. It is safer when the engine fails. For permanent magnet motor, if it loses power, the speed will drop rapidly, which will cause unexpected braking consequences and damage the engine. In sharp contrast, the switched reluctance motor will slide by inertia when it loses power

in addition

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI