Where is the most popular way for China's manufact

2022-07-30
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Where is the way for China's manufacturing industry

recently, Li Wei, director of the development research center of the State Council, was interviewed by the China economic times on the development of China's manufacturing industry. This article is based on the interview content

as a large economy, China cannot live without a strong manufacturing industry, which will still be the source of vitality, wealth and power of China's economy. Made in China 2025 puts forward the strategic goal of "three steps" to achieve manufacturing power in China. How to understand the environment faced by China's manufacturing industry? What are the current situation, characteristics and difficulties of China's manufacturing industry? How to view and understand transformation and upgrading? What are the competitiveness and future prospects of China's manufacturing industry? Where is the way for China's manufacturing industry

the domestic and international environment for the development of manufacturing industry is changing

implementing the made in China 2025 strategy and transforming from a large manufacturing country to a powerful manufacturing country is an inevitable choice for China, because the domestic and international environment for the development of China's manufacturing industry has changed and is undergoing great changes

from the domestic environment, China's economic development has entered a new normal, which is characterized by speed change, structural adjustment and power transformation

in my opinion, the new normal of China's economy is in line with the general development law of catch-up late developing economies. The process of industrialization and urbanization in China has not yet been completed, and China is moving forward from an upper middle-income country to a high-income country. The new normal of economy is a direct reflection of the advancement of the industrialization process to the later stage, and is a necessary stage for the evolution of China's economy to a more advanced stage with more complex division of labor and more reasonable structure

it should be noted that after more than 30 years of rapid development, the basic driving forces that supported economic growth in China in the past, such as relying on cheap and high-quality labor, directly introducing and absorbing foreign technology, huge internal market, strong government and its ability to mobilize resources, have undergone turning changes. Under the new development conditions, both supply and demand have changed significantly, and the constraints are different from those in the past. All these mean that the original growth impetus must be adjusted. The economic development mode should really shift from the scale and speed type of extensive growth to the quality and efficiency type of intensive growth, and the economic development impetus should shift from factor driven growth to innovation driven growth. Whether the economic development under the new normal can smoothly move towards a higher stage and a higher level depends on whether the new and old driving forces can be smoothly connected

from the global background, the development pattern of the global manufacturing industry has undergone profound changes. In recent years, with the change of global economy and trade environment, manufacturing industry is becoming a wrestling field for some big countries to participate in the global industrial division and compete for the most upstream of the global industrial chain and value chain. On the one hand, after the international financial crisis, Europe and the United States and other developed countries have launched the "Reindustrialization" strategy, trying to seize the commanding heights of international competition. For example, the United States has formulated the advanced manufacturing partnership plan, Germany has launched the "industry 4.0" strategy, and Japan has released the manufacturing competition strategy. On the other hand, emerging economies such as India and Vietnam also use their relatively lower labor and other factor costs to rapidly promote their industrialization process

in addition, the new round of technological revolution and industrial revolution also have a profound impact on the global division of labor. Digital information technology, new materials, 3D printing, cloud computing and other new technologies are changing the traditional division of labor pattern of "technology in developed countries + labor in developing countries + market in high-income countries". Intelligent manufacturing, service-oriented manufacturing, decentralized production and globalization of marketing have become new trends. The relative competitive advantages of the United States, Japan, Germany, Britain, France and other countries at the high end of the manufacturing industry have been significantly enhanced

in this context, China needs to find a new way of development. To form a new driving force for China's economic growth and create a new advantage in international competition, the focus is on manufacturing, the difficulty is in manufacturing, and the way out is also in manufacturing. It can be said that promoting the development of manufacturing industry in adjustment and innovation in development is of great significance for improving the comprehensive national strength, ensuring national security, building a world power and achieving the two Centennial goals

there are new opportunities in the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry

as the largest manufacturing country in the world, China's manufacturing sector is generally showing a situation of slowing growth and insufficient growth momentum

on the one hand, under the influence of factors such as diminishing bonus of labor force, increasing cost of production factors, and strengthening resource and environmental constraints, low-end manufacturing industries such as resource intensive, labor-intensive, high energy consuming and high pollution industries have a weak growth, which has led to a decline in the overall growth rate of China's industry. According to relevant data from the National Bureau of statistics, the year-on-year growth rate of added value of Industrial Enterprises above designated size decreased from 8.0% in september2014 to 5.7% in september2015; The year-on-year growth rate of total profits of Industrial Enterprises above designated size decreased from 7.9% in 2014 to -1.7% in 2015

on the other hand, with the slowdown of economic growth and global industrial reform, some risks and contradictions accumulated by China's rapid economic growth over the past 30 years have gradually exposed. For example, most manufacturing sectors have serious overcapacity, and the resolution of overcapacity requires asset restructuring and structural adjustment, which will inevitably lead to enterprise closures, job transfers and even unemployment

of course, although the growth rate has decreased, there is still a huge space for improving the quality and efficiency of growth. From the source structure of total factor productivity, manufacturing is higher than agriculture and services, investment goods manufacturing is higher than other manufacturing, producer services is higher than other services, and tradable sectors are higher than non tradable sectors. As the efficiency gap between sectors is greater than the average level of developed countries, China has relatively greater room for industrial upgrading and productivity improvement

it can be said that China's manufacturing industry still contains huge new opportunities for development in the process of structural adjustment, transformation and upgrading. Economic development has entered the new normal, which has not changed the judgment that China's development is still in an important period of strategic opportunities that can make great achievements. What has changed is the connotation and conditions of the important period of strategic opportunities; It has not changed the fundamentals of China's overall economic development, but only the mode of economic development and economic structure. The adjustment of economic structure will inevitably cause pain, but the successful adjustment will improve the asset quality, industrial structure and global competitiveness. "The rainbow can only be seen after the storm"

the competitiveness of China's manufacturing industry still exists

at present, although China is already a large manufacturing country, the problems such as large but not strong industry, insufficient independent innovation ability, backward basic manufacturing level, low-level repeated construction and so on are still prominent

it is undeniable that the most prominent problem of China's manufacturing industry is that it is at the middle and low end of the world's manufacturing industry chain. Most of the manufactured products are "three low" products with low technology content, low added value and low price, which are at a disadvantage in the distribution of International Economic and trade interests. From the perspective of product competitiveness, the technical equipment and products with high technical content and high added value urgently needed in the domestic market depend on imports for a long time. As a large-scale enterprise or enterprise group that is the main body of research and development, China still has many difficulties to overcome in order to achieve the wide-ranging production of lithium alloys. There is a large gap between the development capacity and the advanced level of foreign countries, and the investment in manufacturing R & D lags far behind developed countries such as Britain and the United States. Although there are Huawei, Lenovo, ZTE and other enterprises with large innovation investment and strong innovation ability in China, the R & D investment of Chinese manufacturing enterprises as a whole is seriously insufficient, accounting for only about 1% of sales. Backward technology and weak innovation ability have become serious obstacles to the industrial structure adjustment and industrial upgrading of China's manufacturing industry

at the same time, it must be noted that although the development of China's manufacturing industry faces many challenges, it is still in an important period of strategic opportunities with great achievements

specifically, we have at least the following advantages:

first, China has the largest consumer market in the world. Despite the slowdown of China's economic growth, the economic growth in 2014 reached more than 800 billion US dollars. According to the data of the world bank, this increase has exceeded the total GDP of Turkey at the moderately developed level in 2014; China's annual import volume of goods is about 2trillion US dollars, about equivalent to the economic aggregate of the world's tenth largest economy; China has become the world's second largest tourism exporter, with more than 100million outbound trips in 2014 and overseas consumption of US $164.8 billion. These data show that as long as manufacturing enterprises can develop and produce safe and high-quality products, China has sufficient market potential

Second, the quality of Chinese workers has been continuously improved. In China, more than 7million graduates with a college degree or above each year, and more than 2 million people receive continuing education in TVU and adult colleges. The quality advantage of human capital will largely offset the decline of the demographic dividend. Moreover, a considerable number of people can meet the employment standards of multinational corporations, which is an important reason why more and more multinational corporations choose to establish R & D headquarters in China. High quality talent team has become a new advantage for Chinese manufacturing enterprises to participate in international competition

third, China has the most perfect industrial system in the world. According to IBM statistics, China is the only country in the world that has all industrial categories in the UN industrial category directory, with 39 industrial categories, 191 medium categories and 525 sub categories, with the most complete industrial system and industrial supporting capacity in the world. This is a valuable and rare solid foundation for China to become a manufacturing power

fourth, China also has a strong advantage in expanding the new country and vigorously promoting the development and transformation of the plastic recycling granulator industry in recent years. Many emerging economies are accelerating industrialization, informatization and urbanization. Infrastructure construction and industrial park development are the key points. China has accumulated rich experience in these aspects, and has formed a complete industrial system and strong industrial supporting capacity. Due to the same development stage and similar consumption and technology preferences, China has stronger competitiveness in international production capacity cooperation and expanding emerging markets. This advantage is conducive to China's smooth turnaround in the process of industrial structure adjustment, transformation and upgrading

fifth, China's manufacturing industry has been highly valued by the state and has a good policy environment. In order to improve the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry and promote the transformation from a manufacturing power to a manufacturing power, China launched made in China 2025 in May this year. This strategy will create good conditions for the upgrading of traditional industries and the rise of emerging industries by creating a fair competition market environment, improving fiscal and financial support policies, expanding the opening-up of the manufacturing industry, and improving the innovation capacity of the manufacturing industry. With the implementation of this plan, information technology, high-end equipment, new materials, biomedicine and other industries will have a better development environment and policy support. At the same time, the transformation and upgrading of traditional manufacturing industry will also receive more powerful policy and financial support due to the low input signal frequency. While the manufacturing industry gets more development opportunities, the tertiary industry serving the manufacturing industry will also get new development opportunities

transformation and upgrading is the only way to enhance competitiveness

transformation and upgrading is the only way for China's industry to enhance competitiveness, prevent industrial hollowing out and cross the middle-income trap. In the long run, China needs to accelerate the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry to maintain China's manufacturing industry in the world for a long time

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